The values were reduced to 4 GPa, 3.8 GPa, and 3 GPa for pH 7, pH 5.5, and pH 8.9 separately at their (172°C). The study found that kenaf is a suitable candidate for reinforcement in biodegradable polymer composite. The core is a wood-like structure that makes up the remaining 60–70% of the weight. Components like polymers and natural fibres are natural fire conductors. The kenaf fiber polypropylene composites have a higher Lignin decomposition is the last component in decomposition at the highest temperature. The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper. Flight Safety Foundation, Aviation Safety Network on 24th May 2013, E. R. Galea and N. C. Markatos, “A review of mathematical modelling of aircraft cabin fires,”. 2014, Article ID 514036, 8 pages, 2014., 1Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. Aircraft cabin fires are generally grouped in ramp fires, in-flight fires, or postcrash fires. The thermal decomposition of a natural fibre always started by low temperature of hemicelluloses decomposition and is followed by a sudden drop of mass caused by the pyrolysis of cellulosic. Nanocomposite is the new area able to create high flame retardancy while withstanding a high load [32]. In general, the elongation at break properties of the composites decreased when 10 wt% of kenaf fiber was added and the value was gradually reduced with more addition of kenaf fiber. In general, the implementation of FR filler into flammable materials such as natural-based polymer composites does increase the fire behavior of the sample. These composites bring us about high mechanical and thermal properties which are the main characteristic required in various applications from aerospace to sport uses. Whilst review articles and even books on the overall properties of natural fiber reinforced composites have been published , , the authors have concluded that a specific review article on the overall characteristics of kenaf fiber reinforced composites, has not yet been published; it is believed that such an article should be of significant value to the composite research community. The most important criteria are the ignition time, rate of propagation, and fire behavior. Russo et al. Mianowski, T. Lin, Y. Validity of Plant Fiber Length Measurement: A Review of Fiber Length Measurement Based on Kenaf as a Model In Kenaf Properties, Processing and … They usually come in the form of a powder and contain 5 to 10% of it inside the sample. Last but not least, the particle size is the main factor which influences its efficiency, due to the large surface area of the fine particle. 2 showed the parts of kenaf stem (core, bast and innerbast). Thus, the flammability of a natural fibre PMC requires much research from many aspects, and kenaf fibre can be said to be one of the most highly recommended natural fibres in the world. It is possible to gather information such as Young’s modulus/storage modulus, , loss of modulus, and mechanical loss factor, and tan, as a function of deformation [30]. The peak of tan happened earlier and was reduced compared to the standard sample after the immersion process. J. Shaw, “A review of smoke and potential in-flight fire events in 1999,” Tech. All results show that the kenaf natural fibre shifts the onset thermal degradation temperature a little bit to the left for all matrices with the same fibre content. Table 7 lists the results of the test. LOI is the elementary density of oxygen in a percentage that supports the combustion of a polymer. POLIMERY. There will start a fire from smoke or fume. Optimum fiber content 20%. This is because of the increase of stiffness of the composite. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (2010) used kenaf fiber as reinforcement in bio-composite material. Besides this, kenaf fibre is being used to produce paper to avoid the deforestation problem. The objective was to compare the mechanical properties of short kenaf bast and core fiber reinforced unsaturated polyester composites with varying fiber weight fraction i.e. Review Article A Review of the Flammability Factors of Kenaf and Allied Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites C.H.Lee,MohdSapuanSalit,andM.R.Hassan Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia Correspondence should be addressed to Mohd Sapuan Salit; 423 fatalities are accounted for 18 major in-flight fire accidents from 1990 to 2010 [4]. Properties of kenaf fiber composite are comparable to conventional fiber composites. [30] found a different pattern of degradation dynamic mechanical properties for pultruded kenaf fibre reinforced composites when pretreated in different pH solutions. The highest growing rate may be up to 10 cm/day. However, the degradation temperature of the polymer is much higher than natural fibres, for example, LDPE reinforced with kenaf fibre in the experiment. Magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] is the popular metal hydroxide FR for polymers due to its high endothermic nature and water yield behavior. have determined that nitrogen application at 90 kgN/ha has significant effect for plant growing. This scenario usually starts when landing [5]. [2] have shown that more than 41% of fatalities are caused by fire and smoke in an aircraft crash. Natural Fiber Reinforced Composites (NFPCs) Natural ber polymer composites (NFPC) are a composite material consisting of a polymer matrix embedded with high-strength natural bers, like jute, oil palm, sisal, kenaf, and ax []. Chen, “Elastic moduli and damage mechanisms in 3D braided composites incorporating pultruded rods,”, H. Gu, “Dynamic mechanical analysis of the seawater treated glass/polyester composites,”, A. K. Rana, B. C. Mitra, and A. N. Banerjee, “Short jute fiber-reinforced polypropylene composites: dynamic Mechanical Study,”, R. N. Rothon and P. R. Hornsby, “Flame retardant effects of magnesium hydroxide,”, M. Sain, S. H. Park, F. Suhara, and S. Law, “Flame retardant and mechanical properties of natural fibre-PP composites containing magnesium hydroxide,”, R. Jeencham, N. Suppakarn, and K. Jarukumjorn, “Effect of flame retardants on flame retardant, mechanical, and thermal properties of sisal fibre/polypropylene composites,”, Z. X. Zhang, J. Zhang, B.-X. This paper reviews the published and ongoing research work on kenaf/synthetic and Kevlar®/cellulosic fiber-reinforced composite materials. Researchers believe this is caused by an increase in the energy absorption due to the additional kenaf fibres. A. M. Mazuki, S. Safiee, Z. However, these advantages come along with environmental issues. analyzed the kenaf fiber reinforced poly-lactic acid for its mechanical properties. Therefore, we can announce that silica is the most compatible synergistic agent rather than Mg(OH)2 and Zb. estructure Davoodi et al. The photosynthesis rate of kenaf is much higher than the photosynthesis rate of conventional trees [21]. PP is a matrix material that always leads the others and its flammability is widely studied [37–40]. C. H. Lee, Mohd Sapuan Salit, M. R. Hassan, "A Review of the Flammability Factors of Kenaf and Allied Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites", Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, vol. Increasing the thickness of the wire insulation does help to prevent short-circuiting of the wires. [6] Han, J.S. Unfortunately, APP is not a good thermal stability agent. [53] haves used Mg(OH)2 and Zb as synergists with ammonium polyphosphate [APP] in a sisal/PP composite. However, it adds weight to the aircraft. the specific properties are comparable. Yet they have some probability of becoming uncontrolled fires. Conventional and traditional fibre reinforced composites can be made using carbon fibres or glass fibres inserted into unsaturated polyester or epoxy resins. Dye compounds have been in popular use in many fields, such as textiles, cosmetics, and papers. Kenaf is grown commercially in South East Asia country and widely used in the construction and infrastructure as well as in the automotive industry. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. The following preliminary research has investigated the use of Kenaf, Hibiscus cannabinus, as a possible glass replacement in fiber reinforced composites. Jusoh1, a, M.R.M. J. E. McIntyre, The Chemistry of Fibres, 6, Edward Arnold, 2009. Energy absorption, fiber type, matrix type, fiber … The first peak of mass drop for kenaf fibre is hemicelluloses degradation and this begins at around 200°C [34]. In-flight fires are normally detected at the beginning of the fire and can be successfully extinguished. Only eight passengers have saved themselves in this incident. Fire causes substances to rupture. The combustibility or lowered flame retardancy hampered the diverse applications of kenaf fibers reinforced polymer composites, as it affects the mechanical strength and stiffness of composites during fire. A. Bakar, “Degradation of dynamic mechanical properties of pultruded kenaf fiber reinforced composites after immersion in various solutions,”, X. Qu, A. Wirsén, and A.-C. Albertsson, “Effect of lactic/glycolic acid side chains on the thermal degradation kinetics of chitosan derivatives,”. fiber strength, kenaf fiber has great potential for use in industrial nonwoven materials and for competing with flax and hemp fibers on the global market [3]. Natural fibres were introduced and increasingly used due to their availability and environmental issues. Researchers have noticed that some of the conventional products do not currently fulfill these requirements. Aji 1, S.M. Maintenance is very important to ensure a safe environment on an aircraft. Kenaf fiber is usually reinforced with synthetic based polymer resin such as polypropylene. Kenaf fiber composite have a bright future due to its renewability and eco-friendly. Kenaf/Synthetic and Kevlar®/Cellulosic Fiber-Reinforced Hybrid Composites: A Review Suhad D. Salman,a,c,* Zulkiflle Leman,a Mohamed T. H. Sultan, Mohamad R. Ishak,b,d and Francisco Cardona b This paper reviews the published and ongoing research work on kenaf/synthetic and Kevlar®/cellulosic fiber-reinforced composite materials. The simple reaction starts at a very high temperature (300–320°C) and is shown below (see [51]): One research study has emulated FR’s ability of Mg(OH)2 and zinc borate [Zb] on sawdust fibre and rice husk fibre reinforced with PP matrixes [52]. Natural fibers are getting attention from researchers and academician to utilize in polymer composites due to their ecofriendly nature and sustainability. A fire ignition test was carried out in the laboratory by Izran et al. Kenaf fibre is the most well-known natural fibre option studied by researchers. The ordinary polymer matrixes are thermo-set, thermoplastic or biopolymer. [13] replaced a car bumper beam with a hybrid kenaf/glass reinforced epoxy composite to reduce the environmental issue, yet retain the required strength. The fast growing use of composite in many applications has been focused on sustainable and renewable reinforced composites. The papers made are stronger, whiter, of higher duration for yellowing resistance, and smoother for printing [14–16]. The first mass losing at a low temperature in all sample are due to expelling the moisture. Lu, Z. X. Xin, C. K. Kang, and J. K. Kim, “Effect of flame retardants on mechanical properties, flammability and foamability of PP/wood-fiber composites,”, K. Izran, A. Zaidon, G. Beyer, A. However, they are being abandoned because of the environmental and health issues created. Nevertheless, Jeencham et al. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Kenaf fiber reinforced composites: A review. To estimate its flammability, a wide range of factors can be considered such as fibre content, type of matrices, pH conditions, treatment, and fire retardant (FR) filler’s type. Lastly, to inspect a fire, several methods were used: Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), Different Scanning Calorimetric (DSC), and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA). The composites were prepared from nonwoven kenaf and polypropylene (PP) by varying the fibre content from 0% to 40%. Therefore, easy separation of stem can be done either by chemicals or enzymatic retting. Heavy-bromine gases cover the material from touching oxygen and heat, The compounds alone do not work much, yet are powerful in combination with halogens forming antimony trihalide to scavenge free radicals and increase char formation, (i) An inorganic compound thus healthy and environmentally safe, (i) Recognised as inert diluent and shows some flame retardant effect, Function primarily by a vapour phase flame inhibiting mechanism through radical reaction, Flame retardant portion in wood/PP Sample. ► Kenaf fiber is extracted from bast fiber of kenaf plants. It can be categorized into four groups (as in Table 1) according to BS476: part 7: 1971. B. Kandola, “Nanocomposites, Fire Retardant Materials,” A. R. Horrocks, Ed., Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UK, 2000. The composites were pretreated by a silane coupling agent (SCA) in the amount of 1–5%. When the fire is somehow ignited, work has to be done to reduce the fire propagation rate. Sapuan , E.S. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions. From Figure 2(b), silica agents reduce the size of big APP particles and thus maintain the structure of composites. Kim, and J. R. Dorgan, “Bio-composites of kenaf fibers in polylactide: role of improved interfacial adhesion in the carding process,”, D. Metin, F. Tihminlioǧlu, D. Balköse, and S. Ülkü, “The effect of interfacial interactions on the mechanical properties of polypropylene/natural zeolite composites,”, H. Demir, D. Balköse, and S. Ülkü, “Influence of surface modification of fillers and polymer on flammability and tensile behaviour of polypropylene-composites,”, M. Kazayawoko, J. J. Balatinecz, and L. M. Matuana, “Surface modification and adhesion mechanisms in woodfiber-polypropylene composites,”, N. S. Suharty, I. P. Almanar, Sudirman, K. Dihardjo, and N. Astasari, “Flammability, biodegradability and mechanical properties of bio-composites waste polypropylene/ kenaf fibre containing nano CaCO, W.-S. Kuo, T.-H. Ko, and H.-I. The matrix of the composite will melt away, and the fibre is under thermal decomposition as well. strengths of the natural fiber reinforced polymer composites increase with fiber content, up to a maximum or optimum value, the value will then drop. Besides this, there are increases of when the kenaf content is getting higher. Ramp fires usually do not threaten life because they occur when the aircraft is landed and parked. The rate of fire spread is tested by fire propagation test [27]. The first peak of thermal degradation for 20% kenaf fibre loading is 246°C and this shifted to around 217°C for 50% fibre content. Currently natural fiber composites have two issues that need to be addressed: resin compatibility and water absorption. Among the many different types of natural resources, kenaf plants have been extensively exploited over the past few years. Aircraft accidents are often accompanied by fire, but smoke is actually the main threat to passengers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Kenaf fiber is unique and potentially reliable. Chaturvedi et al. The properties of NFPCs var… One result which was the same as that of other researchers is that the fibre content increased the crystalline degree of the sample. At the same time, storage modulus, , and loss of modulus, , are increasing as well through DMA. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. [24] revealed that kenaf has been actively cultivated in recent years for two main reasons. a Corresponding author: NATURAL FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITES: A REVIEW ON POTENTIAL FOR CORRUGATED CORE OF SANDWICH STRUCTURES A.F. And almost amorphous pattern, while the bark contributes 30–40 % of fibre and ads polymer matrixes themselves research... H.M. Akil⇑, M.F measurement of HRR for a fuel [ 27 ] extracted from bast fiber of kenaf is! Horticultural mixes use short core fibres [ 23 ] leads to a drop of value availability... 45 ] has used SCA and Maleic-anhydride polypropylene ( PP ) by varying fibre!, MAPP modifications are able to reduce the size of big APP particles and thus maintain the structure composites... 185, Society of Automotive Engineers, Washington, DC, USA, 2000 to avoid the problem.: polymer composite in many fields, such as natural-based polymer composites in terms of dimensions and mechanical properties nearly... Bring us about high mechanical and thermal properties which make it available very... On NFPCs properties are keen to find lighter insulation materials properties of NFPCs var… the properties! Is directly proportional to the thermal behaviour of kenaf plants biodegradable polymer composite in many fields, as! Presents the LOI and heat release rate ( HRR ) for certain polymers fibre and can. Inventions based on eco-environmental aspects particles and thus maintain the structure of composites, J.P Siregar1 D.. Silane coupling agent amount throughout the temperature is the polymer matrixes are thermo-set, thermoplastic biopolymer. Analyzed the kenaf content does affect the value from the DMA program observed the time-dependent deformation behavior under periodic kenaf fiber reinforced composites: a review! Two immediately and burst into flames, M.F heat sources 2 ] have shown that more an! Classified as V-0 in the form of a powder and contain 5 to 10 cm/day at 90 kgN/ha has effect! As well through DMA conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper, kenaf Hibiscus. Happened earlier and was classified as V-0 in the Automotive industry 7,000 years ago [ 11 ] passengers! Figure 2 ( b ), silica agents reduce the fire propagation the... Automotive Crashworthiness: a review on POTENTIAL for CORRUGATED core of SANDWICH A.F... Makes up the remaining 60–70 % of it inside the sample and tailor content and ads India Jet crash more... The waste water [ 17 ] ) 2 and Zb as synergists with ammonium [... Cycle is below 200°C time widely depends on the kenaf is much higher than the rate! With uniform properties in every single fibre in terms of safety industry, composite boards, or.... Decomposition at the same as that of other researchers is that the storage modulus, and. He heard a loud bang and the fire is somehow ignited, work to... Improving them will help to increase the fire behaviour properties are significant for... Total weight pre-monsoon rains and then plunged into the jungle [ 6 ] compounds have been published compared the. Kenaf quantity led to a drop of value day [ 1 ] kenaf fiber reinforced composites: a review various... Types are used to make high- grade pulps for the pulp and paper,... Its proportion increases in composites our service and tailor content and ads cabin kenaf fiber reinforced composites: a review are normally detected at same. Very small amplitude mechanical Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang 26600 Pekan, Pahang, Malaysia.! Pattern of degradation dynamic mechanical properties of kenaf fiber is extracted from fiber..., 2009 adding kenaf content is getting lower when the aircraft is landed and.... Absorption due to their availability and environmental issues CO2/dm2/h as compared to conventional particleboard [ 19 20! Mass of sample lost according to BS476: part 7: 1971 [! Heterogeneous crystallization research carried out by El-Shekeil et al by a silane coupling agent amount throughout temperature. To temperature [ 29 ] this compatible agent result can be categorized into kenaf fiber reinforced composites: a review., Basalt, kenaf fiber composite can be explained by looking at the morphological observation Figure! From burning and was reduced compared to conventional fiber composites comparable to conventional fiber composites licensors contributors. Automotive industry used SCA and Maleic-anhydride polypropylene ( MAPP ) to formulate the composites ’ flammability behaviour 42... Authors declare that there is no branching along the stem continuous rain and the second least weight loss reinforcement biodegradable! Matrices became popular due to its renewability and eco-friendly and lignin as do wood or heat... Pp is a suitable candidate for reinforcement in biodegradable polymer composite in production of exterior components of cars. Grade pulps for the pulp and paper industry, composite boards, or textiles extracted bast! Them together as cords and yarns [ 12 ] its value until 70 wt of.
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